Choosing an Industrial chiller might apparently seem quite an easy task, but it is just the contrast. Before one decides to get a particular chiller for his industry, it is better to know certain nitty gritty regarding this in order to avoid the hassles.
It is definitely true that all chillers perform the same essential function but there are also more points to consider beyond a chiller’s basic ability to cool. You have to be sure of some points before taking the vital decision. Chiller operation & maintenance in India is definitely one of the vital issues ever discussed in the industrial arena. Therefore, it is better to deal with the unavoidable points to consider:
Portable or Central Chillers –
Decide on this first. One of the several different ways you can break chillers into groups is by dividing them into portable or central chillers. Our company Energy Plus guides regarding both types of chillers and you can surely pick the suitable one for your industry. It mainly depends on the space of the industry you are dealing with.
Air Cooled or Water Cooled –
This is yet another category for chillers. The difference between these two types of machines is the way in which they operate and the method they use to produce a cooling effect on your building and machines. Thus you should choose as per your need in the industry you own. The chiller business is not as regular a practice as Industrial chimney supplier in India but you will certainly get them in the top-notch companies. At Energy Plus, we will provide you with the best maintenance and support of industrial chillers, so that they function effectively for years.
Maintenance and Efficiency –
You should be very conscious of these two aspects. Get those chillers for your industry which have efficiency and can be easily maintained. Our team at Energy Plus has always come up with the most efficient chiller maintenance policies and has held high reputation over the years.
Chillers are the most essential components for any industry. But the right one needs to be chosen as per industry purpose. The above discussed are some important tips for buying the best chillers.
It is important for chillers to use vapor-compression or absorption refrigerant cycle for cooling the fluid for transfer of heat. Three principles are followed: Firstly, when a liquid is heated, it transforms into gas and when the gas is cooled, it condenses into liquid. Secondly, if the pressure is lowered above the liquid, it actually reduces its boiling point and vice versa. Thirdly, heat always flows from hot to cold.
The Three Basic Principles The Chillers Follow to Function Properly
The Working Mechanism of Chillers
- Before start up of chiller, check water in cooling tower sump and ensure all valves are open.
- In most cases the process of cooling applications, a pumping system works actively for circulating cool water or glycol solution. We at Energy Plus provide service for Chiller Operation and Maintenance in India and follow this process rigorously, thus ensuring our services to be envious and smooth.
- The basic cooling cycle is the same for both vapor-compression and absorption chillers. Both systems utilize a liquid refrigerant that changes phase to a gas within an evaporator which absorbs heat from the water to be cooled.
- While a vapor-compression chiller consists of four primary components of the vapor-compression refrigeration cycle, an absorption chiller uses a heat source to drive the refrigeration cycle in place of a mechanical compressor.
The chiller will usually be located either in the basement or on the roof and this depends on what type of chiller is used.
For the system to work smoothly with practically no hitch, a reliable service provider is required to operate and maintain the equipment 24×7 as per the manufacturer’s SOP and SMP. This is where Energy Plus’ assistance can come handy in playing a crucial role.
Chillers are the single largest energy-using component in most industries and can typically consume over 50 percent of the electrical usage. Department of Energy estimates that chillers expend up to 30 percent in additional energy through inefficiency. Chillers running inefficiently also results in decreased equipment reliability, increased maintenance intervals, and shortened lifespan. The slightest decrease in chiller performance can have a major impact on efficiency. For instance, every 1 degree C increase in condenser water temperature above full load design can decrease chiller efficiency by 1 percent to 2 percent. A failing or neglected water treatment program can reduce efficiency 10 percent to 35 percent or more in extreme cases.
What Is Maximum Chiller Efficiency?
Contrary to popular belief, running the chiller at full load design and achieving the design kW/ton does not necessarily mean the chiller is running at maximum efficiency. Maximum chiller efficiency is producing the greatest tonnage at the lowest kilowatt usage. Maximum efficiency occurs with most chillers running at approximately 70-75 percent load and the lowest entering condenser water temperature (ECWT), based on design. Knowing a chiller’s efficiency and the effects of load and ECWT will help the facility determine the most efficient chiller configurations, saving the maximum on energy costs.
Tips to Improve Chiller Plant Efficiency
- Keep tubes clean for efficient heat transfer: – Heat transfer has the greatest single effect on chiller performance. Large chillers can have more than five miles of condenser and evaporator tubes, so high heat transfer is fundamental to maintaining efficiency.
- Treat condensate water: – Proper water treatment is required for all condenser water loops. This treatment eliminates scale, corrosion and biological growth. If these elements are found in the system, increase the amount of chemical treatment to the water.
- Analyze compressor oil: – Once a year, send a sample of the compressor lube oil to a laboratory for a spectrometric chemical analysis that will provide details about moisture content, metals, acids and other contaminants that affect performance. Oil should be replaced only if necessary. High moisture levels can indicate a purge unit problem, which has a significant effect on efficiency. Pull samples from low-pressure chillers more frequently, using a schedule based on purge run hours. Replace oil filters when they exhibit a high pressure drop and when the oil charge is replaced.
- Reduce entering water temperature: – Lower temperatures of water entering the chiller condenser system will improve efficiency. When cooler water comes into a system, less energy is required to cool the water to a normal operating temperature. Also, if the regulated temperature rises, surging may occur.
- Maintain a leak free system: – Compressor leak tests should be performed 3-4 times a year. A leak-free system is essential to the performance of a chiller system. Leaks in a system let in non-condensable in the form of air and moisture, which create stress on the system and lead to corrosion. Leaks also release harmful refrigerants into the environment.
- Install VFD/VSD drive in chiller motor: – The motor in a chiller often draws the single highest electrical load in a facility and variable speed drives minimize energy consumption by syncing the work load and motor efficiency. Variable speed drives also serve as a sort of soft starter function that lowers the initial inrush current. This role is especially important when a chiller is running on emergency backup power systems. LG chillers provide the option to add inverter specifications.
- Maintain proper water flow rate: – Flow rate must be regulated closely, because too low a flow rate reduces chiller efficiency, leading to laminar flow. The minimum flow rate is typically around 3 ft. per second. However, too high a flow rate leads to vibration, noise and tube erosion. The maximum recommended flow rate is typically around 12 ft. per second.
- Proper Insulation on chilled water pipeline: – Proper insulation increase the chilling plant efficiency. If insulation is not proper or pipeline is not insulated the heat loss will occurs and overall chilling plant efficiency will comes down.
- Maintain refrigerant charge: – The amount of cooling that any chiller can provide depends on how much refrigerant it moves through the compressor per unit time. It’s important to maintain the proper level of refrigerant. Leaks, as well as air and moisture, decrease efficiency and system reliability. Low refrigerant charge, usually resulting from leaks, causes the compressor to work harder and achieve less cooling effect.
- Purge non condensable gases: – Air and moisture are two non-condensable that can leak into low-pressure chillers. Non-condensable can reduce chiller efficiency by as much as 4% at 60% load and 7% at 100% loads. Air insulates tubes, preventing exchange and elevating condensing temperatures, which also makes the compressor work harder. Moisture promotes acid formation, which can damage motor windings and bearings. Installing purge units on low-pressure chillers minimizes the effect of non-condensable. Modern, high-efficiency purge units minimize both air ingress and refrigerant loss. Eventually, positive pressure chillers using HFC-134a, HFC-410a and HCFC-22 will replace low-pressure chillers. The newer units don’t require purge units because non-condensable can’t enter them.